Monday, December 18, 2017

Nepal's Total Installed Hydro-power

Nepal's Total Installed Hydro-power: 917.484 MW

Indra Sharan KC, GISP

As per Department of Electricity's Data, the total installed hydro-power of Nepal is 917.484 MW.

As of December 8, 2017, there are total 76 hydro-power plant sites producing total 917.484 MW.  There are 13 sites that produce below 1 MW, total of all 13 sites is 9.975 MW. Remaining 63 sites produce more than 1 MW at each location, thus total of all 63 sites is 907.509 MW.

The following map shows the distribution of the hydro-power plant sites. At the moment, most of the hydro-power plants are concentrated in Provinces 4 and 3. Province 1 ranks the third. Province 5, 6 and 7 have few of the plants. Province 2 does not have single hydro-power plant. It gets from other provinces.

For detailed data source please refer to these tables from Department of Electricity, Government of Nepal:

Table 1:<1 a="" hydro-power="" mw="" nbsp="" operating="" sites=""> Less than 1 MW Operating Hydro-power Sites
Table 2: Above 1 MW Operating Hydro-power Sites

Wednesday, April 12, 2017

Golden Rice Fields

Golden Rice Fields

Indra Sharan KC

Rice fields are level terraces with bunds, for it requires water to be collected for at least 6 inch for about three months from plantation time in July. It is harvested in November. Rice fields are kept dry for about one two two months for better yield and for better harvest practices.  Before one months of harvest, rice start changing from green to brown to golden color, contrasting with other greenery in the surrounding

Pawai Gamde VDC, has total area of 13 Sq km.  The land that grows rice in Pawai Gamde  is divided into two geomorphological units: Suraudi khola rice fields (at elevation of 700 to 900 meter) and Pawai khola rice fields (1000 to 1200 meter).  The fields in this picture are from Pawai Khola area.




Picture taken on fifth day of Dipawali (October 19, 2008). Dipawali is related to, among many other things, agricultural prosperity.
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Monday, September 29, 2014

Sun Koshi Landslide: Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Data - Visual Analysis

Sun Koshi Landslide: Indian Remote Sensing Satellite Data - Visual Analysis 

Indra Sharan KC
Sept 29, 2014.

This blog is based on data and information made available at
National Remote Sensing Center Website: Accessed on Sept 17, and 29, 2014). Therefore NRSC is gratefully acknowledged. All the images are provided with their original source linksThese images are copy righted to NRSC/ISRO.

National Remote Sensing Center (NRSC) of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Government of India published Satellite Images of recent Landslide on Sun Koshi River in Nepal.

The landslide had taken place on August 2, 2014. The landslide killed 156 people and destroyed 33 houses; a 2.5 KW hydropower plant in Sunkoshi Bazar; intake structure of 10 KW Sunkoshi hydro in Lamosangu; transmission lines and towers and about 1.5 KM of road in Ramche and Jure. There was 67 MW of power less in the grid, due to this landslide which added extra 4 hours of load shedding in the regular load shedding of daily 10 hours. Significant amount of agricultural land and forest was impacted by the mega landslide.

Nepal Army had been using light explosives, heavy equipment and muscle power to clear open channel to release water from the 2.36 km long, 200 m wide lake with a surface area of 44 Ha formed from the 5.5 million cubic meter debris deposit on Sun Koshi's bend that is exactly at the intersection of 4 Village Development Committees (VDCs), namely, Ramche, Mangkha, Tekanpur and Duskhun, of Sindhupalchok district.  So, the landslide affected people and area of those 4 VDCs.

The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite images provide a great deal of valuable visual information. First, there was no areal or space view to inform scientists and concerned people on the scale and magnitude of the landslide and its impact area. Second, quantitative data on landslide and lake parameters were all speculative.  The images available at answer these two questions very precisely.

There are two types of  IRS Images provided by the NRSC on Sun Koshi Landslide.

LISS IV - multi-spectral images ( Spatial resolution: 5.8 meter at nadir)

A LISS-IV sensor operates in multi-spectral and Mono mode. This  sensor provides data with a spatial resolution of  5.8m (at nadir) in both the modes.
In the Mono mode, the sensor provides data of a single band in the visible region, with a swath of 70 Km (at nadir) and across track steerability of + 26
degrees. In the multi-spectral mode, the sensor provides data of three bands with a swath of 23Km.

When the lake was fully formed:

 The image was taken by RESOURCESAT on 5th August. Here is the link to the images. The measurements data on the landslide and lake are given on the image itself. The Indian National remote Sensing Center LISS IV images are here.

The landslide width at the top and bottom portions measured 506 and 853 meters.  The width of the dam (across the river) measures to be 200 meter.
Similarly, the  length of the lake (straight from the dam to to Sunkoshi bazar at the confluence of Sun Koshi and Bhote Koshi rivers) is shown to be 2.36 KM. From the measurement on image, the area of the lake is 44 Ha.

The measurement is done on-screen using geo-referenced satellite image, and the value can change slightly from person to person. Perhaps these measured values are close to themselves 95% of the time.

Post- dam opening (post Sept 7) image:

The landslide lake suddenly eroded the channel created by the Army and 60 percent of water released in early hours of September 7, 2014. Not serious damage was noticed, although the villages just downstream were evacuated by the people themselves for fear of being washed away by the landslide lake outburst flood. The image clearly shows the decrease in water level. The upper portion of lake (the area near Sun Koshi bazaar, the confluence of Sun Koshi and Bhote Koshi)) is now out of water. Similarly  the area near the dam where a small stream by name Dabi Khola meets Sun Koshi, is also out of water impoundment. Village called Tekan, at this confluence, which is about a kilometer away from the landslide, was destroyed by the landslide and formation of the lake.  This image of September 17, clearly shows this change.

CartoSat Panchromatic Images: (Spatial resolution: 2.5 meter at nadir)

National Remote Sensing Center, Hyderabad also acquired CartoSat-2 data over the landslide on August 23, 2014, when the lake was still intact. Cartosat data are high resolution (2.5 meter), and the measurements on this data yields better results.  This image provides a great view of the landslide and the extent of the lake.  Satellite CartoSat carries two PAN sensors with 2.5m resolution and fore-aft stereo capability. The payload is designed to cater to applications in cartography, and terrain modeling.  However, the NRSC has only provided measurement data using LISS IV MX data, which is 5.8 meter in resolution.  

This image although has some clouds at the upper part of the landslide, has best captured the landslide and the lake in great details.

Quantitative measurements of Sun Koshi Landslide, Dam and Lake  as provided by NRSC

The data from the satellite imagery provides the following information.

Length of Landslide:  

The length of the longest portion of landslide on plan view is 1.5 km. NRSC using LISS IV image  labels it 1.3 KM. 

Width of the landslide:

The width at top is about 500 meter. The width at the bottom part is 900 meter. The landslide tapers from 900 meter at the bottom to 428 meter at the bottle neck portion above at 1.14 KM from the river bed. The average width of the landslide is 600 meter. The NRSC's LISS IV data is labelled as: 506 and 853 meters.

Landslide Dam:
Height (most of the reports) : 55 meter
Dam length: 300 meter
Length of toe of the dam: 700 meter
Gradient of the toe: 1:6 (calculated from photographs taken in the field).
Width of dam: 150 meter.

Landslide Lake:

Straight line distance as given by LISS IV data: 2.36 KM.
Area as LISS IV,  reported by NRSC: 44 Ha.

Further analysis will follow in next blog.

CARTOSAT 1, Data User's Handbook, National Remote Sensing Center, Indian Space Research Organization,  available here.
RESOURCESAT-2, Data User's Handbook, National Remote Sensing Center, Indian Space Research Organization, available here
National Remote Sensing Center Website: Accessed on Sept 17, and 29, 2014).

Friday, November 22, 2013

Constituent Assembly Election Results Map as of November 22, 2013, 4PM

As of November 22, 2013, by 4:pm

The counting of the votes, from the Constituent Assembly Election held on November 19, 2013, have shows that out of 240 seats, the winning parties and candidates for 93 seats have been declared. There are only 3 women candidates elected so far.

The below map shows the spatial patterns of political parties winning the CA seats.

The NC and UML have 40 seats each. UCPN (Maoist) has won 8 seats.
Download the map for viewing the results on your own.

Friday, July 5, 2013

NASA's products point towards heavy rains on 7th July, in the Far-west Nepal and North India

I have been following the products published by NASA - TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission). It appears like these products are really experimental. They are on higher sides of estimations. The rains are less frequent and less intense than what is mapped and communicated. Let us see for the data 7th July in the image below:

Clearly, the Ghaghra and Tista and Mahananda rivers will swell affecting in many parts in India.

The pink color is clearly 250 mm rain which is concentrated in the Mahakali/Sharada and Karnali/Ghaghra in the western part of Nepal and on Mahananda/Mahakali, Tista and some Brahmaputra basin in Assam.

NASA has clearly said these are experimental products. We should see how close they are with the real rainfall. We do not measure, we just compare from the news.

Thursday, June 20, 2013

Rainfall Update: More flooding expected coming days

Rainfall Update: More flooding expected coming days

Please see the visualization of rainfall intensities in the form of maps in the following pages.  The colored patches are the areas where heavy rainfall occurred in the past and is expected in the coming week. The red colored areas are where minimum rains and the purple ones are the areas where maximum rains occurred. You will see two kinds of maps (a) forecast for June 19, and June 22 and (b) trend of rainfall that caused heavy floods in western Nepal and North India.

Scientists have found that if the rainfall exceeds 144mm in a day, the likelihood of landslides increase unexpectedly in Nepal. The  forecast shows rains will exceed the range of 200mm. So, more landslides to be expected. More loss of lives and property, sad news.

1. Forectasts
Forecast for June 19, 2013
This is rainfall prediction for June 19, UTC 1200. Heavy rains expected in the region of the range min 100 mm to max of 250mm for June 19 at about 1200 UTC.

Forecast for June 22, 2013 at UTC 300
This is rainfall prediction for June 22, UTC 300. Heavy rains expected in the region of the range min 100 mm to max of 250mm more frequently that  for June 19.
2. Recent rainfall trend
24 hours accumulated rainfall on June 19 by UTC 300
Minimum 35 mm, central region of Nepal, India, Myanmar and China.

3 days  accumulated rainfall on June 19 by UTC 300
Minimum 100 mm, max 200mm central and western regions of Nepal, India, Myanmar and China.

7 days  accumulated rainfall on June 19 by UTC 300
Minimum 200 mm, max 500 mm central and western regions of Nepal, India, Myanmar and China.

For more on TRMM, please visit: To understand the process, please refer to this literature: Algorithm 3B42 - TRMM Merged HQ/Infrared Precipitation;

Monday, June 17, 2013

Constituency Map of Kathmandu District and valley

The 2008 Constituent Assembly Electoral District Maps of Kathmandu district and Kathmandu valley:

Kathmandu had 10 constituencies. It is likely that the 2013 CA election will have 16 Constituencies in Kthmandu.

Kathmandu valley Constituencies. Kathmandu valley has 4 districts: Kabhre, Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur.

Preliminary Analysis of Constituencies: Which districts gain and which districts loose?

As per constitution of Nepal, after a census is taken the constituency areas will be re-delimitted.

Census of Nepal 2011 taken by Government of Nepal's Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) has been published.

On comparison of data between Census 2001 and Censu 2011, the following information is gleaned:

1. Total 48 districts had increase in population. The blue color on the map shows these districts.
2. Total 27 districts saw decrease in population. The red colored districts on the map.

2001 Population: 23,151,423
2011 population: 26,494,504.

See the pattern of decreasing population trend:

See the pattern of increasing population trend below:

The pattern of gain and loss in the number of constituencies appears to be as given below:

I will update on the changes and new findings in future blogs.

Thank you

Nepal Constituent Assembly (CA) election date announced for 19 Nov 2013

Government of Nepal announced Constituent Assembly Election date as November 19, 2013 (BS Mungsheer 4, 2070).
See the link here.

KATHMANDU: Putting an end to the long-drawn-out period of uncertainty, the government today decided to hold Constituent Assembly election on November 19.

A Cabinet meeting took a call on the poll date after sorting out all contentious issues related to election laws. The government endorsed the Election to the Constituent Assembly Ordinance and forwarded it to the Office of the President for the seal of approval, said Minister for Information and Communications Madhav Prasad Poudel.

The Election Commission-proposed threshold provision, much-debated by four major forces at their innumerable High Level Political Committee meetings, has been removed, in an apparent bid to appease the fringe parties. The government, however, has upheld EC’s proposal on eligibility criteria for CA candidature. “A person convicted of heinous crime by a court will be disqualified from contesting the election,” Poudel told THT.

He said the government has kept existing provision on inclusiveness intact, exempting any party fielding less than 30 per cent candidates under proportional representation from being inclusive for other than woman category. The Nepali Congress and CPN-UML had been demanding that all the parties, irrespective of their strength, should follow the principle of inclusiveness equally in other categories as well. The government has also cracked the ‘other groups’ conundrum and has put Brahmin, Chhetri, Thakuri, Sanyasi and others who have not been defined in this category.

President Ram Baran Yadav’s press adviser Rajendra Dahal said the Head of State would take a call on the government-forwarded ordinance tomorrow.

Panel to delimit constituencies

KATHMANDU: The government on Thursday formed Constituency Delimitation Commission which will be led by former Supreme Court justice Tahir Ali Ansari. Geographist Netra Dhital, administration expert Madhunidhi Tiwari, Sociologist Dambar Chemjong and Secretary at the Prime Minister’s Office Raju Man Singh Malla are the members. The commission will complete delineation of electoral districts for the 240 first-past-the-post seats within next 30 days.

Friday, May 18, 2012

Geospatial Revolution

This video captured very essence of the Geospatial science in simple language and pictures. Very high profile people tell you the story and facts. Look ahead where the world is heading:

Thank you

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Steve Jobs an Inspiration To All

If you love to learn something more about Steve Jobs, the co-founder and CEO of Apple, read the blog from Igor  Ovsyannykov.  He is a 19 year old geek, blogger, and designer. He also enjoys weight lifting, hanging out with friends, and loosing his mind to progressive house music. If you would like to reach him, send him an email to

What Others are Saying

Here are some statements and reactions regarding his death. The following people are some of the most know in the industry. Check out below what they had to say.
“Michelle and I are saddened to learn of the passing of Steve Jobs. Steve was among the greatest of American innovators – brave enough to think differently, bold enough to believe he could change the world, and talented enough to do it.
By building one of the planet’s most successful companies from his garage, he exemplified the spirit of American ingenuity. By making computers personal and putting the internet in our pockets, he made the information revolution not only accessible, but intuitive and fun. And by turning his talents to storytelling, he has brought joy to millions of children and grownups alike. Steve was fond of saying that he lived every day like it was his last. Because he did, he transformed our lives, redefined entire industries, and achieved one of the rarest feats in human history: he changed the way each of us sees the world.
The world has lost a visionary. And there may be no greater tribute to Steve’s success than the fact that much of the world learned of his passing on a device he invented. Michelle and I send our thoughts and prayers to Steve’s wife Laurene, his family, and all those who loved him.” - Barack Obama
“I am very, very sad to hear the news about Steve. He was a great man with incredible achievements and amazing brilliance. He always seemed to be able to say in very few words what you actually should have been thinking before you thought it. His focus on the user experience above all else has always been an inspiration to me. He was very kind to reach out to me as I became CEO of Google and spend time offering his advice and knowledge even though he was not at all well. My thoughts and Google’s are with his family and the whole Apple family.” - Larry Page, Google CEO
“From the earliest days of Google, whenever Larry and I sought inspiration for vision and leadership, we needed to look no farther than Cupertino. Steve, your passion for excellence is felt by anyone who has ever touched an Apple product (including the macbook I am writing this on right now). And I have witnessed it in person the few times we have met. On behalf of all of us at Google and more broadly in technology, you will be missed very much. My condolences to family, friends, and colleagues at Apple.” - Sergey Brin, Google Co-founder
“I’m truly saddened to learn of Steve Jobs’ death. Melinda and I extend our sincere condolences to his family and friends, and to everyone Steve has touched through his work.
Steve and I first met nearly 30 years ago, and have been colleagues, competitors and friends over the course of more than half our lives. The world rarely sees someone who has had the profound impact Steve has had, the effects of which will be felt for many generations to come.
For those of us lucky enough to get to work with him, it’s been an insanely great honor. I will miss Steve immensely.” - Bill Gates
I have some very sad news to share with all of you. Steve passed away earlier today.
Apple has lost a visionary and creative genius, and the world has lost an amazing human being. Those of us who have been fortunate enough to know and work with Steve have lost a dear friend and an inspiring mentor. Steve leaves behind a company that only he could have built, and his spirit will forever be the foundation of Apple.
We are planning a celebration of Steve’s extraordinary life for Apple employees that will take place soon. If you would like to share your thoughts, memories and condolences in the interim, you can simply email
No words can adequately express our sadness at Steve’s death or our gratitude for the opportunity to work with him. We will honor his memory by dedicating ourselves to continuing the work he loved so much.” - Tim Cook, Apple CEO [in an email to Apple employees]
“Steve, thank you for being a mentor and a friend. Thanks for showing that what you build can change the world. I will miss you.” - Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook CEO
“Once in a rare while, somebody comes along who doesnt just raise the bar, they create an entirely new standard of measurement.” - Dick Costolo, Twitter CEO
“I want to express my deepest condolences at the passing of Steve Jobs, one of the founders of our industry and a true visionary. My heart goes out to his family, everyone at Apple and everyone who has been touched by his work.” - Steve Ballmer, Microsoft CEO
“Steve Jobs was a great friend as well as a trusted advisor. His legacy will extend far beyond the products he created or the businesses he built. It will be the millions of people he inspired, the lives he changed and the culture he defined. Steve was such an ‘original,’ with a thoroughly creative, imaginative mind that defined an era. Despite all he accomplished, it feels like he was just getting started. With his passing the world has lost a rare original, Disney has lost a member of our family, and I have lost a great friend.” - Bob Iger, Disney CEO
The magic of Steve was that while others simply accepted the status quo, he saw the true potential in everything he touched and never compromised on that vision. He leaves behind an incredible family and a legacy that will continue to speak to people for years to come. - George Lucas
Today, we lost one of the most influential thinkers, creators and entrepreneurs of all time. Steve Jobs was simply the greatest CEO of his generation. While I am deeply saddened by his passing, I’m reminded of the stunning impact he had in revolutionizing the way people consume media and entertainment. My heart goes out to his family and to everyone who had the opportunity to work beside him in bringing his many visions to life. - News Corp. CEO Rupert Murdoch
We are saddened by the passing of Steve Jobs. Steve was an iconic inventor, visionary, and entrepreneur, and we had the privilege to know him as partner and friend. All of us at AT&T offer our thoughts and prayers to Steve’s wife, family, and his Apple family. - AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson
Tonight, America lost a genius who will be remembered with Edison and Einstein, and whose ideas will shape the world for generations to come. Again and again over the last four decades, Steve Jobs saw the future and brought it to life long before most people could even see the horizon. And Steve’s passionate belief in the power of technology to transform the way we live brought us more than smart phones and iPads: it brought knowledge and power that is reshaping the face of civilization. In New York City’s government, everyone from street construction inspectors to NYPD detectives have harnessed Apple’s products to do their jobs more efficiently and intuitively. Tonight our City – a city that has always had such respect and admiration for creative genius – joins with people around the planet in remembering a great man and keeping Laurene and the rest of the Jobs family in our thoughts and prayers. - NYC Mayor Michael Bloomberg
It’s the ultimate sadness. First of all, it’s a young person who was revered, sometimes feared, but always revered. In a way, it’s kind of prophetic; everyone was hoping he could be on stage yesterday. He was a very special person, and he didn’t get to where he was by having people like him all the time. He got to where he was because he had a vision and a purpose. It’s easy to try and please everyone, but he kept to his principles. - Former Yahoo and Autodesk CEO Carol Bartz
Today the world lost a visionary leader, the technology industry lost an iconic legend and I lost a friend and fellow founder. The legacy of Steve Jobs will be remembered for generations to come. My thoughts and prayers go out to his family and to the Apple team. - Dell Founder Michael Dell
He was one of the most remarkable business managers and innovators in american business history. - Warren Buffett
Steve lived the California Dream every day of his life and he changed the world and inspired all of us.- Arnold Schwarzenegger
I think you can say he built three companies. He built the first Apple. He built Pixar. And then he built the second Apple. That is pretty extraordinary. – Jeff Bezos CEO,

Monday, August 8, 2011

Nepal-born student who spotted ‘water’ also plays guitar

Mixing music with Mars
- Nepal-born student who spotted ‘water’ also plays guitar
Lujendra Ojha, the lead guitarist in a heavy metal band named Gorkha
New Delhi, Aug. 6: Eight years ago, Lujendra Ojha was a schoolboy in his native Nepal trying to sharpen his skills on the guitar, but also dreaming about pursuing research on parallel universes, designing time machines and exploring space.
Drawing inspiration from comic books, science fiction films, and Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time, which he recalls reading while he was in the 9th grade at Kathmandu’s Galaxy Public School, Ojha wanted to do “something fascinating” in science.
If he couldn’t travel around the world as a star guitar player, that is.
Ojha is now an undergraduate geophysics student at the University of Arizona, Tucson, where he moved with his parents in 2005 when he was 15. And he is lead guitarist of a student band named Gorkha that specialises in heavy metal.
But this week, Ojha appeared to leap towards a career in planetary science with his first research paper — a publication in the US journal Science — describing intriguing features on the planet Mars that scientists are interpreting as the flow of liquid water.
Ojha, a co-author in the paper, was the first to spot dark finger-like features on images of the surfaces of steep slopes in the southern hemisphere of Mars, captured by a camera orbiting Nasa’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.
“They appear only in the summer, grow during the summer season and fade away in the winter,” said Ojha, an undergraduate member of a research team led by principal investigator Alfred McEwen that examined the features over three Martian summers.
These dark, finger-like features that appear and extend down some Martian slopes during the warmest months of the Mars year may show activity of salty water on Mars. They fade in winter, then recur the next spring.
“These features appear only when the temperatures rise during summers, only on steep slopes, and only in the mid-latitudes — the best explanation we think is the flow of liquid water with salts,” Ojha told The Telegraph in a telephone interview.
Although geological features observed on Mars earlier have indicated that liquid water once flowed on the planet, scientists believe that the possibility of liquid salt-laden water could have implications for future studies in the decades-old search for life on Mars.
For his discovery, Ojha was among only two undergraduate students from Arizona invited to share their research findings with the government and representatives of science agencies during a special event in Washington DC in April this year.
He believes the opportunity for research that his university offered him as well as the invitation to present his research are both tremendous honours.
“I’m from halfway around the world, came here, and got involved in some awesome research. For me to move from Nepal to Capitol Hill in such a short (time) feels like a great accomplishment,” he told his university newsletter earlier this year.
Ojha is determined to continue with his studies in geophysics and hopes he can become a planetary scientist. He still plays the lead guitarist in Gorkha, but says music is now only a hobby.
“I still sometimes dream of travelling the world playing the guitar — but science is fascinating.”